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Explaining China's Evolving Policy on United Nations (UN) Peacekeeping - Four Phases of Participation Using Yongjin Zhang's Framework, Westphalian Operations, Origination, and Justifications

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This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study aims to illuminate the factors that have contributed to Chinese policy changes regarding UN peacekeeping operations. Using Yongjin Zhang's framework, it identifies four phases of evolution in China's UN peacekeeping participation: opposition, non-interference, coo This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study aims to illuminate the factors that have contributed to Chinese policy changes regarding UN peacekeeping operations. Using Yongjin Zhang's framework, it identifies four phases of evolution in China's UN peacekeeping participation: opposition, non-interference, cooperation, and participation. The reasons for a state's participation in peacekeeping operations are diverse, ranging from self-interest to altruism. The evolution of Chinese support for UN peacekeeping is derived from its self-interested security concerns and its self-identity in relation to other states. When China believed its security was threatened, it sought opportunities to balance the threat by developing ties with international organizations and powers. Subsequently, as it has grown into those organizations, China has identified itself as a leader within them. China's defense of Westphalian principles of sovereignty creates the impression that China is in opposition to Western powers in their efforts to propose, pass, and execute UN peacekeeping operations. This has led scholars and politicians to question the degree of commitment China has to UN peacekeeping principles and institutions. This study will be divided into four chapters. Chapter I has recapped the major questions and the significance of the study, and reviewed the literature on peacekeeping justifications and on China's participation in peacekeeping. Chapter II will explore the history of peacekeeping and its current form in the United Nations. This chapter will lay out in more detail the range of motivations of the different states to become involved in peacekeeping operations. Chapters III will be the main empirical chapters of the study examining the four phases: phase 1 condemnation (1950-1971), phase II non-interference (1971-1981); phase III of cooperation (1982-1988), and phase IV participation (1989 to present). Each of these sections will more fully characterize China's posture and behavior toward PKOs and assess the relative weight of the casual factors in determining these outcomes. Chapter IV will conclude by providing as summary assessment of the main motivations behind China's involvement in international peacekeeping; and reflect on the implications for Chinese and U.S. foreign policy more generally.


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This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study aims to illuminate the factors that have contributed to Chinese policy changes regarding UN peacekeeping operations. Using Yongjin Zhang's framework, it identifies four phases of evolution in China's UN peacekeeping participation: opposition, non-interference, coo This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study aims to illuminate the factors that have contributed to Chinese policy changes regarding UN peacekeeping operations. Using Yongjin Zhang's framework, it identifies four phases of evolution in China's UN peacekeeping participation: opposition, non-interference, cooperation, and participation. The reasons for a state's participation in peacekeeping operations are diverse, ranging from self-interest to altruism. The evolution of Chinese support for UN peacekeeping is derived from its self-interested security concerns and its self-identity in relation to other states. When China believed its security was threatened, it sought opportunities to balance the threat by developing ties with international organizations and powers. Subsequently, as it has grown into those organizations, China has identified itself as a leader within them. China's defense of Westphalian principles of sovereignty creates the impression that China is in opposition to Western powers in their efforts to propose, pass, and execute UN peacekeeping operations. This has led scholars and politicians to question the degree of commitment China has to UN peacekeeping principles and institutions. This study will be divided into four chapters. Chapter I has recapped the major questions and the significance of the study, and reviewed the literature on peacekeeping justifications and on China's participation in peacekeeping. Chapter II will explore the history of peacekeeping and its current form in the United Nations. This chapter will lay out in more detail the range of motivations of the different states to become involved in peacekeeping operations. Chapters III will be the main empirical chapters of the study examining the four phases: phase 1 condemnation (1950-1971), phase II non-interference (1971-1981); phase III of cooperation (1982-1988), and phase IV participation (1989 to present). Each of these sections will more fully characterize China's posture and behavior toward PKOs and assess the relative weight of the casual factors in determining these outcomes. Chapter IV will conclude by providing as summary assessment of the main motivations behind China's involvement in international peacekeeping; and reflect on the implications for Chinese and U.S. foreign policy more generally.

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