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Think Again: The Power of Knowing What You Don't Know

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We need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Why do we refresh our wardrobes every year, renovate our kitchens every decade, but never update our beliefs and our views? Why do we laugh at people using computers that are ten years old, but yet still cling to opinions we formed ten years ago? For too many of us, our ways of thinking become habits that we don't b We need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Why do we refresh our wardrobes every year, renovate our kitchens every decade, but never update our beliefs and our views? Why do we laugh at people using computers that are ten years old, but yet still cling to opinions we formed ten years ago? For too many of us, our ways of thinking become habits that we don't bother to question, and mental laziness leads us to prefer the ease of old routines to the difficulty of new ones. We fail to update the beliefs we formed in the past for the challenges we face in the present. But in a rapidly changing world, we need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Think Again is a book about the benefit of doubt, and about how we can get better at embracing the unknown and the joy of being wrong. Evidence has shown that creative geniuses are not attached to one identity, but constantly willing to rethink their stances and that leaders who admit they don't know something and seek critical feedback lead more productive and innovative teams. New evidence shows us that as a mindset and a skilllset, rethinking can be taught and Grant explains how to develop the necessary qualities to do it. Section 1 explores why we struggle to think again and how we can learn to do it as individuals, arguing that 'grit' alone can actually be counterproductive. Section 2 discusses how we can help others think again through learning about 'argument literacy'. And the final section 3 looks at how schools, businesses and governments fall short in building cultures that encourage rethinking. In the end, learning to rethink may be the secret skill to give you the edge in a world changing faster than ever.


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We need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Why do we refresh our wardrobes every year, renovate our kitchens every decade, but never update our beliefs and our views? Why do we laugh at people using computers that are ten years old, but yet still cling to opinions we formed ten years ago? For too many of us, our ways of thinking become habits that we don't b We need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Why do we refresh our wardrobes every year, renovate our kitchens every decade, but never update our beliefs and our views? Why do we laugh at people using computers that are ten years old, but yet still cling to opinions we formed ten years ago? For too many of us, our ways of thinking become habits that we don't bother to question, and mental laziness leads us to prefer the ease of old routines to the difficulty of new ones. We fail to update the beliefs we formed in the past for the challenges we face in the present. But in a rapidly changing world, we need to spend as much time rethinking as we do thinking. Think Again is a book about the benefit of doubt, and about how we can get better at embracing the unknown and the joy of being wrong. Evidence has shown that creative geniuses are not attached to one identity, but constantly willing to rethink their stances and that leaders who admit they don't know something and seek critical feedback lead more productive and innovative teams. New evidence shows us that as a mindset and a skilllset, rethinking can be taught and Grant explains how to develop the necessary qualities to do it. Section 1 explores why we struggle to think again and how we can learn to do it as individuals, arguing that 'grit' alone can actually be counterproductive. Section 2 discusses how we can help others think again through learning about 'argument literacy'. And the final section 3 looks at how schools, businesses and governments fall short in building cultures that encourage rethinking. In the end, learning to rethink may be the secret skill to give you the edge in a world changing faster than ever.

30 review for Think Again: The Power of Knowing What You Don't Know

  1. 4 out of 5

    Olive Fellows (abookolive)

    Another great one from Adam Grant. Check out my review on Booktube. Another great one from Adam Grant. Check out my review on Booktube.

  2. 4 out of 5

    Ryan Boissonneault

    In 1933, the philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote that “the fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt.” While this is just as true today as it was in the early twentieth-century, the problem actually runs deeper; almost everyone recognizes arrogance and overconfidence in others—but never in themselves. Since the time of Russell, what’s become known as the Dunning-Kruger Effect has been experimentally validated. Resea In 1933, the philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote that “the fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt.” While this is just as true today as it was in the early twentieth-century, the problem actually runs deeper; almost everyone recognizes arrogance and overconfidence in others—but never in themselves. Since the time of Russell, what’s become known as the Dunning-Kruger Effect has been experimentally validated. Research shows—and personal experience confirms—that those who are the least knowledgeable in a subject tend to be the ones who overestimate their own knowledge and abilities, while those that are full of doubt know enough about the topic to better gauge the extent of their ignorance. And so the telltale sign of a lack of knowledge is, paradoxically, arrogance and overconfidence, whereas in those with actual expertise you often see the opposite: humility, doubt, and open-mindedness. Far more people fall on the side of overconfidence. This is due, at least in part, to widespread access to the internet, where people can quickly read articles and watch videos (of varying quality and credibility) on any conceivable topic, creating the impression that one has attained deep knowledge in a subject when only a very superficial understanding has been gained. Overcoming this unfortunate state of affairs is the subject of organizational psychologist Adam Grant’s latest book, Think Again, which seeks to show us how to overcome our own unjustified overconfidence by developing the habits of mind that force us to challenge our own beliefs and, when necessary, to change them. Grant begins by telling us that when we think and talk, we often slip into the mindset of three distinct professions: preachers, prosecutors, and politicians. We become preachers when the unwarranted strength of our convictions compels us to convert others to our way of thinking; prosecutors when our sole aim is to discredit the beliefs of others; and politicians when we seek to win favors from our chosen constituency. What all of these mindsets have in common is the assumption that our beliefs are infallible, and that no one could possibly have anything to teach us. Trapped in the prison cell of our own dogma, we don’t set out to learn anything or update our own beliefs; our job is simply to convert others to our way of thinking because, of course, we are right. These habits of mental imprisonment can happen to anyone at any level of knowledge or experience, and intelligence itself has actually been shown at times to be a disadvantage, as those with high IQs have the most difficulty updating their beliefs. As Dunning himself said, “The first rule of the Dunning-Kruger club is you don’t know you’re a member of the Dunning-Kruger club.” You may think all of your beliefs are correct (otherwise you wouldn’t hold them), but there is little doubt that at least some (probably many) of them are false or oversimplified. If your mind remains closed, you’ll never discover which of these beliefs require updating. The key question, then, is this: If most of us are unaware of the extent of our own ignorance, how can we hope to overcome our own resistance to change? The first step, as Grant recommends, is to detach your sense of self from any specific beliefs. If you identify with a specific set of fixed core beliefs, you will be far less likely to change your mind in the face of new evidence or better reasoning. Grant recommends instead to ground your sense of self in mental flexibility, taking pride in the fact that you’re willing to change your mind and update your beliefs. To achieve this, you must consider all of your beliefs to be provisional hypotheses and then seek to disprove them, in the process becoming more knowledgeable by being wrong more often. Using this approach, you will have discovered the ideal mindset for personal development and learning—not the mindset of a preacher, prosecutor, or politician, but the mindset of a scientist. The scientist, Grant tells us, has one overarching concern: the truth. The individual that adopts a scientific mindset will be equally motivated to challenge their own beliefs as the beliefs of others, testing hypotheses against the evidence and continually updating their beliefs in the process. Of course, as Grant points out, being an actual practicing scientist does not guarantee the adoption of this mindset. There are plenty of dogmatic scientists that don’t abide by the principles of their own training. The scientific mindset is not, as Grant is describing it, the mindset adopted by scientists necessarily, but rather the ideal mindset that follows the principles of science as an open-ended pursuit of knowledge that is constantly updated in the face of new evidence. In one interesting study described by Grant (the book is filled with fascinating examples and studies of a similar sort), two groups of entrepreneurs were provided training. One group was taught the principles of scientific thinking while the control group was not. The researchers found that the scientific-thinking group “brought in revenue twice as fast—and attracted customers sooner, too.” As Grant wrote: “The entrepreneurs in the control group tended to stay wedded to their original strategies and products. It was too easy to preach the virtues of their past decisions, prosecute the vices of alternative positions, and politick by catering to advisers who favored the existing direction. The entrepreneurs who had been taught to think like scientists, in contrast, pivoted more than twice as often.” Individuals that enjoy the prospect of being wrong—and so expand their knowledge more often—tend to be more successful and tend to hold more accurate, nuanced beliefs. It’s not that they lack confidence, it’s that their confidence is of a different nature. Flexible-minded individuals have confidence in their ability to learn and to unlearn beliefs that are outdated or are no longer serving them well. Their confidence lies in their ability to change and to adapt rather than in strength of their convictions concerning any single set of beliefs. As Nobel Prize-winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman put it, “Being wrong is the only way I feel sure I’ve learned anything.” There is definitely a line to walk, and the reader may wonder just how far they should take this advice. To constantly question every one of your beliefs would result in paralyzing doubt. Sometimes, it is the strength of our convictions that give us the energy and perseverance to pursue and accomplish our goals. So this is surely a balancing act, and while we all have to find the sweet spot between timidity and arrogance, conviction and doubt, there is little question that too many of us tend toward the extreme of overconfidence. After showing us how to become better rethinkers ourselves, in the second part of the book we learn how to open other people’s minds. Grant shows us how world-class debaters win debates, how a black musician talked white supremicists out of their bigoted views, and how doctors persuaded anti-vaxxers to get their children immunized. In every case, we learn the same lesson in the art of persuasion: to change someone else’s mind, you have to help them find their own internal motivation to change. This is not easy. The mindsets we typically slip into tend to have the opposite effect. Act as a preacher, and people will resist being told what to think (even if the facts are on your side). Act as a prosecutor, and people will resent your condescension and will become further entrenched in their original views. Act as a politician, and you’re just saying what you think people want to hear. None of these approaches are effective as tools of persuasion. It turns out that your best bet is to adopt, once again, the mindset of a scientist—and to try to get others to do the same. This will transform disagreements from battles to be won and lost into a collaborative pursuit of the truth. The most skilled negotiators, debaters, and persuaders all use similar tactics: they first find common ground and points of agreement, ask more questions to get the other person thinking deeper, present a limited number of stronger points, and introduce complexity into the topic to move the person’s thinking away from black-and-white and into shades of gray. It turns out that complexifying the issue is always key. Most people exhibit what psychologists call binary bias, or the “basic human tendency to seek clarity and closure by simplifying a complex continuum into two categories.” If you can show people—through the use of skillful questioning—that the topic they think they understand deeply (Dunning-Kruger Effect) is actually far more complex than they originally thought with more than two distinct positions, then you can plant the seeds of doubt that eventually lead to real change. One example Grant uses is climate change. We tend to think that people fall into one of two categories—climate-deniers or alarmists—when in fact there are six distinct positions people can take from dismissive, doubtful, or disengaged to cautious, concerned, or alarmed—with shades of nuance in between. It’s often the recognition of this complexity that can get people talking and engaged in productive debate. In the final part of the book, Grant shows us how to use the skills of rethinking to engage in more productive political debates, to become better teachers, and to create more innovative cultures at work. Grant provides a host of compelling examples, but my favorite is the middle-school history teacher who gets her students to think like scientists by rewriting textbook chapters that failed to cover important historical events in sufficient depth. Her students pick a time period and topic that interests them and then, through independent research, rewrite the textbook chapter, in the process cultivating the skill to always question what they read. This is a far better approach than simply delivering a lecture and forcing students to regurgitate the information on a test. ----- Bertrand Russell was once asked in an interview if he was willing to die for any of his beliefs. His response was this: “Of course not. After all, I may be wrong.” It’s a shame that most people adopt the opposite attitude, and Grant’s latest book will go a long way to remedying this. Think Again is a timely exploration of the importance of humility and the capacity to rethink your own positions while helping others do the same. But in the spirit of the book—and to “complexify” the topic—it’s worth considering when displaying doubt and humility might actually backfire. Grant wonders this himself, and points out, for example, that displays of doubt and humility have been shown to have negative effects in the workplace in those who have not already established their competence. It can also be less effective when delivering a presentation to an already sympathetic audience. Does Grant downplay the frequency of these types of situations? Another area where excessive doubt and humility might backfire is an area that Grant fails to consider in much depth at all: arguing with bad faith actors. When discussing politics, Grant seems to assume that in most cases both sides are equally motivated by the truth, and that each side has simply failed to understand the complexity of the topic or the merits of the other side. But we know that this is not always the case. In politics, people have a host of motives when arguing that sometimes have very little to do with the truth: the desire for power, money, influence, and sometimes simply the desire to offend and get a rise out of people. Grant does not cover how to handle these situations—or how to identify them—and it is highly unlikely that the tactics of the book will work in these situations. Additionally, it seems that the masses respond better to confidence when electing political representatives, because we know that Trump was not elected based on his knowledge or competence—and certainly not on his humility. When dealing with bad faith actors, perhaps a good strategy would be to start with a simple question, one Grant mentions in the book: “What evidence would change your mind?” If the answer is “nothing,” then it’s probably best to walk away. Either way, a chapter or section on bad faith actors and the questions you can ask to identify them would have been a welcome addition to the book. But of course, this book is not the final word on the topic, and Grant wouldn’t want it to be. As we gain better evidence and more experience, it’s our responsibility to continually rethink and update our beliefs. As Russell said, “If you’re certain of anything, you’re certainly wrong, because nothing deserves absolute certainty.” ---- For my latest reviews, check out thecrowdedbookshelf.com.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Chris Boutté

    Once again, Adam Grant releases a book that solidifies him as one of my favorite psychology writers. I didn't really know what this new book was about before it launched, but I love Grant's writing. Once I started reading it, I ended up binging the book in a day. This book is all about one of my favorite subjects, which is intellectual humility. In Think Again, Adam Grant challenges us to become alright with not knowing, being wrong, and rethinking our own conventional wisdom. Our egos hate when Once again, Adam Grant releases a book that solidifies him as one of my favorite psychology writers. I didn't really know what this new book was about before it launched, but I love Grant's writing. Once I started reading it, I ended up binging the book in a day. This book is all about one of my favorite subjects, which is intellectual humility. In Think Again, Adam Grant challenges us to become alright with not knowing, being wrong, and rethinking our own conventional wisdom. Our egos hate when we do this, so it takes effort, but through psychological research and relevant stories, Grant explains how we can all begin working on this issue.  One of the other great features of this book is that Grant spends a couple sections explaining why it's so difficult to get through to other people. In this day and age with people who are anti-vaxxers or there are those who believe the 2020 election was fraudulent despite a lack of evidence, I'm glad Grant helps explain how to have conversations with these types of people. As a recovering drug addict who worked in a treatment center, I appreciate how he highlighted the benefits of motivational reasoning, which is a powerful tool to help others rethink their beliefs. I can't give this book enough praise, and I hope everyone grabs a copy. I can definitely see myself reading this book again.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Jolanta

    Well written, clear, engaging and hilarious - this book has been an enjoyable and extremely valuable read for me. I initially purchased the audiobook because Adam Grant reads it and it feels like a long podcast. What a FANTASTIC writer AND narrator he is! He masterfully opens some of your blind spots and motivates you to rethink our beliefs and assumptions we have from decades about different things. Seriously, be prepared for your life to be changed after reading this! I found the science in th Well written, clear, engaging and hilarious - this book has been an enjoyable and extremely valuable read for me. I initially purchased the audiobook because Adam Grant reads it and it feels like a long podcast. What a FANTASTIC writer AND narrator he is! He masterfully opens some of your blind spots and motivates you to rethink our beliefs and assumptions we have from decades about different things. Seriously, be prepared for your life to be changed after reading this! I found the science in this part of the book particularly fascinating. I can’t recommend this enough! One of the best books I’ve ever read. Thank you for the inspiration and saving me the trip to Mount Stupid! “It takes humility to reconsider our past commitments, doubt to question our present decisions, and curiosity to reimagine our future plans. What we discover along the way can free us from the shackles of our familiar surroundings and our former selves. Rethinking liberates us to do more than update our knowledge and opinions—it’s a tool for leading a more fulfilling life."

  5. 4 out of 5

    Michael Payne

    The first rule of the Dunning-Kruger club is that you don't know you are a member of the Dunning-Kruger club. Think this ^ doesn't apply to you? > Think again :). Are you really so certain you are a "Democrat", a "Tory", a "Labor" voter or a "Republican"? Really? So, you have "the" answer? Or, could it be that parties themselves are in fact the problem you hope to resolve as they part 'us' against 'them'. Will your version of division truly help stop the division? If you are oh so certain you don't The first rule of the Dunning-Kruger club is that you don't know you are a member of the Dunning-Kruger club. Think this ^ doesn't apply to you? > Think again :). Are you really so certain you are a "Democrat", a "Tory", a "Labor" voter or a "Republican"? Really? So, you have "the" answer? Or, could it be that parties themselves are in fact the problem you hope to resolve as they part 'us' against 'them'. Will your version of division truly help stop the division? If you are oh so certain you don't need to read this book: you do. Outside of computer science and electronics answers are rarely binary. There are many answers and many truths. Try turning challenge into exploration by hearing and learning something new in criticism. When you are confronted with ideas with which you disagree, question whether if the circumstances were reversed and you sat in the other persons upbringing, culture, country and shoes would you too likely have those same beliefs? Instead of trying to change others: start first in changing yourself. In a learning culture you really don't have the answers, you only think you do with varying degrees of probability. Think about it. Read this book. And . . . think again.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Rob Schmoldt

    I’m still a huge Yankees fan but now have a little more appreciation for Red Sox fans (not much though) ⚾️ Think Again is a hefty collection of useful social psychology research well summarized and presented for the layperson interested in challenging how we think and why we think the way we do. Includes 249 research notes for further reading and a list of AG’s top thirty actionable takeaways as a resource. You will enjoy and likely expand a bit.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Venky

    “Think Again” by American psychologist, bestselling author and professor of organizational psychology at the Wharton Business School, Adam Grant, is known wisdom repackaged efficiently and repurposed expertly. The nub of Grant’s latest book is rethinking the art of thinking. Received wisdom, stale conventions and entrenched dogmas have, according to Grant not just permeated our thoughts but have also succeeded admirably well in influencing our very approach to both personal and professional live “Think Again” by American psychologist, bestselling author and professor of organizational psychology at the Wharton Business School, Adam Grant, is known wisdom repackaged efficiently and repurposed expertly. The nub of Grant’s latest book is rethinking the art of thinking. Received wisdom, stale conventions and entrenched dogmas have, according to Grant not just permeated our thoughts but have also succeeded admirably well in influencing our very approach to both personal and professional lives. A stereotypical obsession with standing circumstances, makes us, in the words of Grant, ‘mental misers.’ The technical term for such a rigid attitude is cognitive laziness. The handmaiden of status quo, cognitive laziness couches us in illusory relief and imagined comfort. This is also known as the seizing and freezing phenomenon. Grant encapsulates the phenomenon of justifying accepted norms, by taking recourse to a theory propounded by Canadian-American political Science writer Philip Tetlock. Tetlock opines that as we think and speak, we tend to lapse into three different ‘professional’ modes. As we think and talk, we often slip into the mindsets of three different professions: preachers, prosecutors, and politicians. When our sacrosanct beliefs are under attack, we don the garb of a preacher, delivering sermons to preserve and protect our views. When we perceive another individual’s, belief sets to be false, we seamlessly go into the mode of a prosecutor pointing out flaws and poking holes in opposing arguments. Finally, when the need of the hour is to effect defection from the opposing camp to our own, we become politicians garnering for support and consensus. While this in itself is not an undesirable trait, unflinching adherence to it may turn out to be costly. Grant sets out the example of the maverick genius Mike Lazaridis to illustrate the pitfalls of the ‘3P’ Approach. An innate genius, Lazaridis upended the world of technology and telecommunications with the Blackberry. Yet when the company was valued at a whopping $70 billion, and Apple was just an irritating but formidable pretender to the throne, the brilliant Lazaridis failed to see reason. Firmly entrenched in his opinion that what people did not want on their mobile phones was a computer, he sacrificed both market share and possibilities at the altar of obstinacy. Even when one of his premier engineers exhorted Lazaridis as 1997, to add an internet browser, Lazaridis instructed him to focus only on email. A chance for redemption materialized in the year 2010, when Lazaridis was goaded on by his team to feature encrypted text messages. But Lazaridis nursing an apprehension that allowing messages to be exchanged on competitors’ devices would render the BlackBerry obsolete, put paid to the hopes of his engineers. The rest, as we all know is history. First Apple, and then Samsung raced paced Blackberry, first reducing it to be a mere blip before finally finishing it off. Lazaridis, although blessed with immense intelligence was in the throes of two types of biases that drove his decision making strategy. Confirmation bias: seeing what we expect to see, and desirability bias: seeing what we want to see. As Grant writes, “These biases don’t just prevent us from applying our intelligence. They can actually contort our intelligence into a weapon against the truth. We find reasons to preach our faith more deeply, prosecute our case more passionately, and ride the tidal wave of our political party. The tragedy is that we’re usually unaware.” John Maynard Keynes is famously attributed with this telling quote, “when the facts change, I change my mind.” It is this propensity to adapt oneself to changing circumstances and fact patterns, that serves as a weapon against these two biases. Grant appeals to all of us to inculcate within us the bent of a scientist. A scientist is at once curious and humble, While she possesses an insatiable thirst for knowledge, she also derives immense pleasure in knowing that she is wrong. For erring, during the course of a research, in itself is a smart experiment that yields some knowledge. For example, during the course of a lecture by Grant, Daniel Kahneman, the Nobel Prize-winning psychologist, found out that a sphere relating to his research was wrong. Kahneman’s reaction was one of pure joy – he was now less wrong than before! However, the world seems to be far removed from such acts of self-introspection. On the contrary, there is a massive overdose of the “Dunning-Kruger’ Syndrome. The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias hypothesis that people with low ability at a task overestimate their ability. Grant also highlights the fact that people are usually informed by an innate bias called ‘binary bias.’ “It’s a basic human tendency to seek clarity and closure by simplifying a complex continuum into two categories. To paraphrase the humorist Robert Benchley, there are two kinds of people: those who divide the world into two kinds of people, and those who don’t.” The legendary debate between Daniel Goleman and Jordan Peterson over the preponderance of Emotional Quotient (“EQ”) and Intelligence Quotient (“IQ”) being a classic case in point. While Goleman remains steadfast in his stance that EQ matters more for performance than IQ, thereby accounting for “nearly 90 percent” of success in leadership jobs, Jordan Peterson, argues that “There is NO SUCH THING AS EQ”. According to Peterson, EQ is “a fraudulent concept, a fad, a convenient band-wagon, a corporate marketing scheme.” Grant points out that both men of great reputation and stature have failed to recognise that the concepts of EQ and IQ have relevance, but in different settings and circumstances. Grant offers thirty key takeaways at the conclusion of the book to nurture and foster a sustained and consistent practice of rethinking. This thinking about thinking that has some innovative and pleasing shades includes: Learning something new from each person that we meet; Embracing and not moving away from constructive conflicts; Practicing the art of conscious and persuasive listening; Asking what drove people to originally form an opinion; Acknowledging common ground during the course of engaging in debates; Refraining from asking kids what they want to be when they grow up “Think Again”, inspires the reader to reevaluate and rethink accepted conventions, taken-for-granted beliefs and deep-rooted tropes. And as Grant illustrates this can be done by having fun too!

  8. 5 out of 5

    Kyle Weil

    Adam Grant's Think Again is a solid book extolling the benefits of open-mindedness and reassessing your beliefs. He uses a nice blend of research-backed insights and anecdotal evidence to walk the reader through how to use uncertainty and the knowledge of not knowing to both convince others and reevaluate your own beliefs. Grant defines three archetypes to represent the most common mistakes people make when attempting to convince others: Preacher, Prosecutor, & Politician. When we become a preac Adam Grant's Think Again is a solid book extolling the benefits of open-mindedness and reassessing your beliefs. He uses a nice blend of research-backed insights and anecdotal evidence to walk the reader through how to use uncertainty and the knowledge of not knowing to both convince others and reevaluate your own beliefs. Grant defines three archetypes to represent the most common mistakes people make when attempting to convince others: Preacher, Prosecutor, & Politician. When we become a preacher, we become arrogant, talking down to people while representing our belief as the one source of truth. As a prosecutor, we over-focus on poking holes in other peoples' arguments. Rather than listening and having a conversation, we try to undermine opposing arguements. Finally, we can fall into the trap of being a politician where we are more focused on looking good and catering to groupthink than critically engaging an opposing viewpoint. All three viewpoints leave both parties entrenched in their views and prevents any real discussion or persuasion to occur. Grant argues listening is the panacea to these common pitfalls. If you take a genuine interest in someone else's viewpoint, they are more likely to hear you out and consider new ideas. You might also learn something new and change your viewpoint. This leads into the joy of discovering that you were wrong. Rather than looking at being wrong as a bad thing, Grant argues that it should be a celebrated event. It's an opportunity to grow and be less wrong in the future. Listening also allows for you to hold a mirror up to the speaker. As they verbalize their beliefs and the reasoning behind them, you can help them realize where there might be inconsistencies in their thinking. When giving your side of the argument, it is less effective to quote a ton of facts, statistics, and research than it is to emphasize common ground. Too often there is a tendency to oversimplify topics and create binary outcomes. You should emphasize the complexity to highlight the areas of common ground and generate a more open-minded environment. Additionally, you should prioritize the quality of arguments rather than the quantity. The more points you make to support your perspective, the more likely the other person can find a weak point and knock down your argument. A single weak point can lead someone to entirely dismiss what is otherwise and extremely sound and logical argument. Beyond discussion with other people, Grant also covers the importance of reevaluating your own beliefs and knowledge. There should never be a situation where you are not open to rethinking what you know and believe. We are highly likely to protect our beliefs even when presented with new evidence to the contrary. I found his discussion of committing to a career to be especially relateable. He advises for you to not be afraid of leaping into a new field if you are extremely unhappy or not learning in your current role. It is extremely common not to feel passionate about your job or to not know what you want to do. The industry that is the perfect fit for you might not even be invented yet. Your job should be an opportunity to experiment and try different combinations of roles to find what you are truly passionate about. Grant also cites research showing that most passions are things we grow into. That's why experimentation is extremely important. What we thought made us happy 10 years ago, might no longer be applicable. It is important to constantly reassess these beliefs and ask how we know them to be true. Overall, I think this book was good just not great. I had already been exposed to a lot of Grant's ideas and didn't feel like this book put out anything revolutionary. It's definitely a great reminder on how we should not be overconfident in our beliefs, especially when trying to convince others. I'd recommend to anyone who is looking for a lighter psychology-based read and wants to work on open-mindedness.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Anna Sonju

    Torn between a 4 and a 5 so let’s settle for 4.5. This is definitely one of the most insightful psychology books I’ve read—not overly repetitive or common-sense, and I already know that everything I learned will be extremely applicable to all areas of my life, from professional to personal. The book covers rethinking and unlearning (or modifying your values and opinions based on new facts), which I find extremely relevant in the current political climate as well as in life in general. Grant does Torn between a 4 and a 5 so let’s settle for 4.5. This is definitely one of the most insightful psychology books I’ve read—not overly repetitive or common-sense, and I already know that everything I learned will be extremely applicable to all areas of my life, from professional to personal. The book covers rethinking and unlearning (or modifying your values and opinions based on new facts), which I find extremely relevant in the current political climate as well as in life in general. Grant does an incredible job outlining what makes someone good or bad at rethinking when they are presented with new information or context, discusses how to debate and disagree with others effectively, and even gives some nice life tips about planning my future for a girl who is just entering the adult world. Some key highlights: 1. Explained the benefits of impostor syndrome in being successful later in life, related to the idea that people with impostor syndrome are more likely to doubt and question their own beliefs than be overconfident. As someone with impostor syndrome I am glad it’s not destructive. 2. How to debate and disagree with people! Begin with common ground. Ask the open-ended how questions, listen, and boil your points down to the most important rather than just attacking with all the data and facts you have on an issue. 3. Binary bias (thinking issues are black and white)!! Things are not quite as simple as they seem. This was especially relevant considering in politics today so many people refuse to compromise with those who disagree. Attempting to listen and understand the nuances of an issue and the spectrum of opinions on something like abortion or climate change can allow you to better understand, empathize with, and try to persuade people on the “other side”. 4. Changing your mind is cool! Grant talks a lot about how pigeonholing yourself as only being meant for one type of career or one type of partner or one city etc can completely prevent you from finding what you really need in life. Just because you want those things now that doesn’t mean you will in five years. I’ve had a lot of discussions lately with friends about whether people have a “calling” in life, and I don’t think people have one calling but I do sometimes feel envious of those who seem to have it all figured out. This section kind of reminded me that so many of my values will change in two years that it’s ok that I don’t feel completely tied to one type of future. I need to stop stress-planning because I am going to change and that is okay because it means I am staying open-minded and true to my future self as well as my present self. Anyway I loved this book and it should be a must read so people can reassess how they approach their life, their conversations, and their relationships.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Diane S ☔

    3.5 Do you make up your mind and stick to it no matter what? Are you unable to handle constructive criticism? Are you so set on doing things one way even when another, often better way can be found? Do you refuse to discuss things with those who don't share your opinions? This and much more is discussed in this book. Using examples such as the demise of the blackberry and the success of the IPhone to the Wright brothers whose arguments eventually led to problem solving. How someone showing you th 3.5 Do you make up your mind and stick to it no matter what? Are you unable to handle constructive criticism? Are you so set on doing things one way even when another, often better way can be found? Do you refuse to discuss things with those who don't share your opinions? This and much more is discussed in this book. Using examples such as the demise of the blackberry and the success of the IPhone to the Wright brothers whose arguments eventually led to problem solving. How someone showing you that you are wrong could be a learning experience and the many who believe this is true. Non confrontational ways to discuss with those whose opinions differ from your own. There is much inside that makes a great deal of sense. Now if I can just practice some of what I learned. Interesting book. Interesting subject especially in our age of misinformation. ARC from Netgalley.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Zibby Owens

    The topic of Adam's book, The Power of Knowing What You Don't Know, has given me immense validation that it's okay to rethink decisions. I rethink every decision I make because I am constantly changing plans. The author points out that sometimes, the first place we start—our first thoughts and our intuitions—are always our best thoughts. I loved when the author talked about kids being asked what they want to be when they grow up. Instead of asking something we know will probably change or evolve The topic of Adam's book, The Power of Knowing What You Don't Know, has given me immense validation that it's okay to rethink decisions. I rethink every decision I make because I am constantly changing plans. The author points out that sometimes, the first place we start—our first thoughts and our intuitions—are always our best thoughts. I loved when the author talked about kids being asked what they want to be when they grow up. Instead of asking something we know will probably change or evolve, the author suggests we ask, "What are all the different things you want to do in life?" He also writes about the power of listening and how we can significantly understand each other if we listen first to learn what we don't know instead of trying to get across what we do know. To listen to my interview with the author, go to my podcast at: https://zibbyowens.com/transcript/ada...

  12. 5 out of 5

    Swati Vasishta

    The book is highly relevant for today's times, in the massive rise of internet warriors and increased polarisation, its so hard to make an opinion based on the truth amidst sensationalized news. Most of our baseline opinions are arbitrary, we have developed them without any rigorous data or deep reflections, which is where the concept of 'thinking like a scientist' can be so useful. Instead of quickly forming an opinion, treat it like a hypothesis and test it with data. Asking people questions l The book is highly relevant for today's times, in the massive rise of internet warriors and increased polarisation, its so hard to make an opinion based on the truth amidst sensationalized news. Most of our baseline opinions are arbitrary, we have developed them without any rigorous data or deep reflections, which is where the concept of 'thinking like a scientist' can be so useful. Instead of quickly forming an opinion, treat it like a hypothesis and test it with data. Asking people questions like 'How have you formed this opinion?' or 'What evidence will change your mind?' can form a constructive framework for a debate that seeks the truth, instead of proving oneself to be right. It's also good to acknowledge that most things are not black-and-white, its mostly shades of gray, so, acknowledging competing claims and conflicting results doesn't necessarily sacrifice credibility, it can just be seen as an experiment when sometimes good processes can lead to bad outcomes, suggesting further thinking and re-evaluations. I loved the book for challenging the reader to make time to understand and accept what they don't know and to schedule rethinking at regular intervals. While the concepts are super-relevant, the book is filled with American-specific stories and references throughout, making it more biased towards the western context and reducing its relatability for a global audience.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Rishabh Srivastava

    Caveat: I'm probably not the target audience for this book. Saw 0 new arguments here, and also saw a lot of badly designed studies being masqueraded as "data-driven proof". Will not recommend – specially if you're an engineer, computer scientist or investor – and are in an environment where you're constantly seeking evidence that you're wrong and can do things better Ray Dalio's Principles is Taleb's Skin In the Game are far better books if you're looking to understand what it is that you do not Caveat: I'm probably not the target audience for this book. Saw 0 new arguments here, and also saw a lot of badly designed studies being masqueraded as "data-driven proof". Will not recommend – specially if you're an engineer, computer scientist or investor – and are in an environment where you're constantly seeking evidence that you're wrong and can do things better Ray Dalio's Principles is Taleb's Skin In the Game are far better books if you're looking to understand what it is that you do not know The first third of the book is about convincing the reader that being open to changing your mind is a good thing. The second third is about suggestions to get other people to change their mind. And the last third is about making societal level changes. The book has statements like “how many of us even admit being wrong, and seek disconfirming evidence” (most of us who do not come from privilege, and are constantly second guessing themselves hardly have this problem thank you very much). It also included some terribly designed studies which no one who uses modern apps and tools would take seriously. And some of it claims are just patently false (like "no pollster had Trump as a frontrunner in the republican primary" – Trump was literally the top contender in every single poll!) I can't wrap my head around how this is so highly rated. But to each their own, I guess

  14. 4 out of 5

    Andrew

    One of the best books that I have read and this has to be one of my recommendations. The thirty practical takeaways in the "Actions for Impact" chapter are priceless. Adam Grant shows how rethinking and relearning what we think we know can benefit us at home and at work. One of the best books that I have read and this has to be one of my recommendations. The thirty practical takeaways in the "Actions for Impact" chapter are priceless. Adam Grant shows how rethinking and relearning what we think we know can benefit us at home and at work.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Pooja

    Makes you question every single belief you had since time eternity. It is an important book to read from time to time. It covers various issues of student life, working life and relaxing life. It helped me think of the experiments I would be doing.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Hill Krishnan

    This book by Wharton professor came out at 3 am and I waited to finish it before going to bed. His best book so far. Top takeaways: —Being curious and open are the vital characteristics of a national leader or a life saving firefighter! —Best forecasters are the ones who change their minds many times even if they don’t like what they are changing their mind to. (Like the forecaster who predicted Trump’s victory when his chances was 8% of winning the primary according to Nate Silver) —Both confidenc This book by Wharton professor came out at 3 am and I waited to finish it before going to bed. His best book so far. Top takeaways: —Being curious and open are the vital characteristics of a national leader or a life saving firefighter! —Best forecasters are the ones who change their minds many times even if they don’t like what they are changing their mind to. (Like the forecaster who predicted Trump’s victory when his chances was 8% of winning the primary according to Nate Silver) —Both confidence and humility are vital combinations. —Being open to debates on what you believe is the path for growth. (E.g. Wright brothers debated and then also argued on support of the other’s viewpoints). —If you haven’t changed your mind in anything in the last 5 years, then you haven’t grown in a long time.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Ed Carmichael

    For fans of "Originals" and "Give and Take", this book will probably satiate your craving for more of Adam Grant's brand of distilling social science into a highly engaging, eminently readable book. It's a pretty breezy read, and shorter than his others if I'm remembering correctly. But that doesn't mean it's not packed full of insights delivered in that eye-opening, AHA way that Grant so excels at. The book's core message is one of humility. He encourages us to stop, ask how we know what we thi For fans of "Originals" and "Give and Take", this book will probably satiate your craving for more of Adam Grant's brand of distilling social science into a highly engaging, eminently readable book. It's a pretty breezy read, and shorter than his others if I'm remembering correctly. But that doesn't mean it's not packed full of insights delivered in that eye-opening, AHA way that Grant so excels at. The book's core message is one of humility. He encourages us to stop, ask how we know what we think we know, to actively solicit others to challenge our preconceived notions ("challenge networks"). He also shares tips and strategies on how to have difficult conversations on polarizing topics like gun rights, abortion, and climate change. I found the science in this part of the book particularly fascinating. You'll learn how just a few simple shifts can alter the trajectory of these difficult conversations in profound ways. Highly recommend this one for lovers of Malcolm Gladwell, Susan Cain, David Epstein, or any other pop social science writer.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Salomé Esteves

    As a person who likes to affirm that she's always right, I really needed this book. Besides, it was on my must-read 2021 releases list. Adam Grant is very practical in his directness, which I always appreciate in this kind of non-fiction. "Think again" is the perfect combination of explanatory and practical. Grant explains some concepts, but always with examples and tips, sometimes from his own life. As a teacher, I specially appreciated the chapter on how teachers can rethink their passiveness As a person who likes to affirm that she's always right, I really needed this book. Besides, it was on my must-read 2021 releases list. Adam Grant is very practical in his directness, which I always appreciate in this kind of non-fiction. "Think again" is the perfect combination of explanatory and practical. Grant explains some concepts, but always with examples and tips, sometimes from his own life. As a teacher, I specially appreciated the chapter on how teachers can rethink their passiveness and adopt a more conscious, active learning. I highly, highly recommend this book, specially, if like me, you like to think you are always right, because, as everyone around you knows, you are not.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Satkar Ulama

    Some of the book's key takeaways: -Always challenge your knowledge and perspective by re-learning, researching, and testing your hypotheses. -Think about the different times. What worked in the past might not work today. What works today may not work in the future. What is impossible today may be possible in the future. -Don’t fall into confirmation bias and desirability bias. Don’t stop unbelieving. -Knowledge makes people confident. But don’t be overconfident. Have the humility to realize that the Some of the book's key takeaways: -Always challenge your knowledge and perspective by re-learning, researching, and testing your hypotheses. -Think about the different times. What worked in the past might not work today. What works today may not work in the future. What is impossible today may be possible in the future. -Don’t fall into confirmation bias and desirability bias. Don’t stop unbelieving. -Knowledge makes people confident. But don’t be overconfident. Have the humility to realize that there are more things you don’t know than things you do. -Don’t fall into the armchair quarterback syndrome (high confidence, low competence) or the impostor syndrome (low confidence, high competence). Have confident humility: knowing what tools you have and focusing on them while admitting what you don’t. -Separate your present from your past. Let go of the foolish beliefs you had in the past. Separate your opinion from your identities. The truth is still the truth, even if you don’t like it. -Find people who can give you constructive criticism and the feedback you need to hear, not want to hear. Collaborate with disagreeable people and those with contradicting opinions. Share your ideas with those who may disagree, so you get a different point of view to consider. -Skilled negotiators focus on asking questions and finding common ground, while average negotiators focus on having as many reasons as possible and defending their point of view. When negotiating, don’t give too many reasons why the opposite party should agree with you. Instead, challenge them to rethink their opinion. -Avoid fundamental attribution error (making a false judgment of somebody based on a circumstance) and group attribution error (making a false judgment of a group based on somebody). You can do it by delaying your judgment and thinking of alternative situations. Ask yourself if you’d have the same judgment if you were in a different condition or come from a different background. -To eliminate stereotypes towards a group of people, get to know a person from the group and understand why he behaves a certain way. When you start making a stereotype toward a group based on your experience with him, delay your judgment, try experiencing the same thing with a different person from the same group and see if the pattern is consistent. -When aiming to change a person's mind, try the motivational interviewing technique: 1) Ask open-ended questions 2) Engage in reflective listening 3) Affirm his desire and ability to change, and 4) Summarize your understanding of his reason to change, check on whether you misunderstand anything and inquire about his plans and next steps. -When aiming to change a person's mind, don’t tell him what to do. Allow him to think of the plans himself, then ask what he’d think if they do the plan you offer. -Avoid binary bias; seeing something as either black or white OR good or bad. Understand that context and situation matter. For example, the debate on whether emotional intelligence is important at work may depend on what kind of job we are talking about. -Pay attention to emotions. When the emotion is tense, it’s hard for you to see from the opposite person’s perspective. Control your emotion when discussing a topic where you and the other person have opposite views. When you control your emotion, you become more open and willing to rethink. -If you want to establish a rethinking culture, open a critique session, where one can give feedback to another’s work so he can improve based on the feedback. Encourage people at your workplace to rethink by making growth one of your team’s values. Build a learning culture where people continue being curious, know what they don’t know, and challenge what they know. -Psychological safety should not be about creating a comfortable, relaxing working environment where people are always agreeable. It should focus on giving and accepting constructive criticism, building trust, taking risks, and raising ideas openly.

  20. 5 out of 5

    David

    I am a bit in a stretch on this one. First - I did complete it in one sitting. To the point without any major waste of words or repetitions and very, very engaging. What is in the hindsight less fascinating is it´s core message: or the web of it´s core messages. Will need to do a lot of thinking and rethinking on it (which is great), but in the end I feel now that there is inherent weakness in hailing the "scientific approach" (as defined by author) as the main way of approaching problems: as a mo I am a bit in a stretch on this one. First - I did complete it in one sitting. To the point without any major waste of words or repetitions and very, very engaging. What is in the hindsight less fascinating is it´s core message: or the web of it´s core messages. Will need to do a lot of thinking and rethinking on it (which is great), but in the end I feel now that there is inherent weakness in hailing the "scientific approach" (as defined by author) as the main way of approaching problems: as a model, sure. In the real world, in politics, day to day decisions, pandemy handling: the main problem is not the ability to rethink, but the inflow of data, the choice of it and to an extent resignation on truth. And if we want to talk about "bringing people to truth" while abhorring being preachy or politicky: well, it does not get ethically better if we exchange those communication strategies for wanton emotional manipulation. And one by one even the other basic positions of the book reveal deep inherent problems. Without any need to go deeper into philosophy for the sake of philosophing, what is truth then? How can we talk about "truth getting to people" and at the same time describe the world as having multiple truths? There is also some erosion of trust as soon as the superforecasting is mentioned, which itself comes into a series of well deserved criticism as a concept (where most of it is actually even result of the original study) - or when we are confronted with more and more "feel good" or exciting stories, but without any solid intrinsic connection. Yes, so somebody was able to convince antivaxxer - cool, but we do not get to go under the skin deep issues of the problem. Same with NASA: or even with the initial smokejumping scenario, which makes a very, very bold connection of comparing adrenaline filled scenario where people were not able to rationally choose to follow random good idea of one of them. Is it actually a story of critical thinking and rethinking, if the decisions are made in split seconds? There are very interesting and even useful bits and pieces all around, but if this should start up critical thinking: well, naturally, first target should be the book itself. And it does not pass the scrutiny as gracefully as it probably should.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Chelsea DeMasters

    I don’t mean to be dramatic, but this is my favorite book of all time (thus far, anyway). I love books that make me rethink every life choice I’ve ever made. Adam Grant’s Think Again is Malcolm Gladwell on steroids. It is a beautiful masterpiece of intellectual curiosity and open-mindedness and a push to re-evaluate absolutely everything. The book’s primary contention is that we walk through life with a set of beliefs about how the world works and how we are to function in it and this is severel I don’t mean to be dramatic, but this is my favorite book of all time (thus far, anyway). I love books that make me rethink every life choice I’ve ever made. Adam Grant’s Think Again is Malcolm Gladwell on steroids. It is a beautiful masterpiece of intellectual curiosity and open-mindedness and a push to re-evaluate absolutely everything. The book’s primary contention is that we walk through life with a set of beliefs about how the world works and how we are to function in it and this is severely limiting. If only we could consider new ideas and even contradictory ideas from our gut instinct, it could open doors and unleash opportunity. Grant points out many real-life stories in business, politics, science and more where one person chose to turn their world upside down and look at it again - and that new perspective changed everything. Grant’s book is eye-opening, challenging, and will stick with you. Could not recommend it more. A must read.

  22. 5 out of 5

    Stephen

    I’m a newcomer to Grant and read this after seeing it in the UPenn bookstore. Actually after my wife saw it and I kind of eye rolled like, “Some blah blah blah Wharton pop Econ psychology bullshitter book that the bookstore has to push.” Grant won me over though. The topic is an echo chamber to my own natural second guessing of everything I believe all the time and my own changeable mind. For verification that being that way doesn’t make me weak-minded, thank you Adam Grant. And sure it’s pop fee I’m a newcomer to Grant and read this after seeing it in the UPenn bookstore. Actually after my wife saw it and I kind of eye rolled like, “Some blah blah blah Wharton pop Econ psychology bullshitter book that the bookstore has to push.” Grant won me over though. The topic is an echo chamber to my own natural second guessing of everything I believe all the time and my own changeable mind. For verification that being that way doesn’t make me weak-minded, thank you Adam Grant. And sure it’s pop feeling but I credit Grant’s ability to communicate with the popular feel, not I hope, him glossing over contrary studies. That said, there has been some recent critique of the Dunning Kruger effect and given his heavy reliance on it, I’d have appreciated an honest consideration of those criticisms. A good book. Good tips at the end. I hope in our divided era, people read this and consider their beliefs and are not afraid to listen to the other side.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Sarah Van Kuiken

    This book checked all the boxes for me when it comes to nonfiction. Practical, informative, and open to change. The book successfully practices what it preaches - or should I say "rethinks like a scientist" instead of preaches? The anecdotes successfully keep the reader's interest while serving as the main vehicle for the author's key claims. I think the lessons in this book would benefit anyone! This book checked all the boxes for me when it comes to nonfiction. Practical, informative, and open to change. The book successfully practices what it preaches - or should I say "rethinks like a scientist" instead of preaches? The anecdotes successfully keep the reader's interest while serving as the main vehicle for the author's key claims. I think the lessons in this book would benefit anyone!

  24. 5 out of 5

    Wiebke (1book1review)

    I really enjoyed this, although I was hoping for more hands-on advice, or exercises. Overall the book goes through different areas of life from the perspective of rethinking. How an ability to rethink can be beneficial in life and work, how it is hard to change other people's beliefs and get them to rethink. How we ourselves may not be as good at rethinking as we think. Everything was well presented and supported by examples and experiments/studies. I much enjoyed how he didn't just pretend that h I really enjoyed this, although I was hoping for more hands-on advice, or exercises. Overall the book goes through different areas of life from the perspective of rethinking. How an ability to rethink can be beneficial in life and work, how it is hard to change other people's beliefs and get them to rethink. How we ourselves may not be as good at rethinking as we think. Everything was well presented and supported by examples and experiments/studies. I much enjoyed how he didn't just pretend that he was perfect but gave multiple examples of his own failings and shortcomings. Like I said before this is not a "how to rethink" book, but more a collection of its benefits and some ways to get better at it.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Annie Stimson

    Adam Grant never disappoints but this is some of my favorite work from him. Incredibly eye-opening while still being approachable and practical, I really feel like I’m taking something away that I’ll use in my day to day life.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Caleb Batchelor

    Who knew being wrong could be so fun?

  27. 4 out of 5

    Phil Simon

    Many academics do interesting research. Some can express themselves clearly. Then there are those who can synthesize their work, make you think, and write a compelling text. Adam Grant is one of those people. Think Again isn't your normal psychology text. Yes, Grant cites plenty of studies, but stitches them together into a fascinating narrative about why we're so loath to change our minds. I particularly enjoyed the book's figures, cartoons, and even flow charts—all of which vividly illustrates Many academics do interesting research. Some can express themselves clearly. Then there are those who can synthesize their work, make you think, and write a compelling text. Adam Grant is one of those people. Think Again isn't your normal psychology text. Yes, Grant cites plenty of studies, but stitches them together into a fascinating narrative about why we're so loath to change our minds. I particularly enjoyed the book's figures, cartoons, and even flow charts—all of which vividly illustrates his points. Just a spectacular book from a ridiculously insightful mind.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Caitlin Munson

    I really liked this book. More like a 4.5 for me. Adam Grant made this book clear, enjoyable, interesting and engaging. I liked he sprinkled a lot of personal stories and interesting studies into it. Also laughed out loud at some parts. Highly recommend.

  29. 5 out of 5

    Carla Harlin

    If you're an overthinker, this book will make you feel less guilty about taking the time to see things from different perspectives. You will actually learn how to gain more benefits from doing that. I don't recommend this to super-anxious people who might exaggerate some ideas from this book. For free self-help books with actionable steps, I recommend this list: https://alexamood.com/list-of-free-se... If you're an overthinker, this book will make you feel less guilty about taking the time to see things from different perspectives. You will actually learn how to gain more benefits from doing that. I don't recommend this to super-anxious people who might exaggerate some ideas from this book. For free self-help books with actionable steps, I recommend this list: https://alexamood.com/list-of-free-se...

  30. 4 out of 5

    Megan Porter

    So, so good. Highly recommend listening to it as Adam Grant reads it and it feels like a long podcast, in a really good way. I could see myself listening again. So relevant for our world right now.

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